MCE 4: Franchinus Gaffurius, Salve mater salvatoris

Edited by Cristina Cassia

The ascription to Franchinus Gaffurius is reported in the index of I-Mfd 1, where it refers to the whole cycle (‘Salve mater salvatoris gaffori cum tota missa’), and was added by Gaffurius himself at the beginning of each single motet (‘F. Gafforus’ on ff. 84v and 90v, ‘F. G.’ on ff. 85v and 87v).
I-Mfd 1, ff. 84v-93r
All the motets that make up this cycle are unica. Scribe B copied them quite accurately; at a later stage, Gaffurius emended a few mistakes in the text, while an unidentifiable hand entered corrections in the music. Despite these interventions, the cycle still contains some errors.

Among the six motetti missales cycles copied in the Milanese Libroni between the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century under Franchinus Gaffurius’s supervision, Salve mater salvatoris is the only one composed by the Italian choirmaster.[1] Gaffurius was very keen to claim paternity of this work, as he not only ascribed this cycle to himself in the index of Librone 1, listing it among the missales as ‘Salve mater salvatoris gaffori cum tota missa’, but also added his name or his initials at the beginning of each single motet in the upper margin of the folios, after Scribe B had finished copying the work.[2] The cycle must have been composed within a precise span of time, between Gaffurius’s arrival in Milan (1484) and the binding of Librone 1 (1490).[3] At that time, Gaffurius already knew the motetti missales by Loyset Compère and Gaspar van Weerbeke, which had been composed around a decade earlier, and was surely influenced by them.[4]

However, unlike the other five missales cycles itemized in the index of Librone 1, Salve mater salvatoris consists of four motets instead of eight.[5] Each of the four motets, in turn, is divided into two or three sections and the total length of the resulting ten parts corresponds to that of the other missales. The arrangement of the ten sections is the following:

1 a Salve mater salvatoris
  b 2.p. Salve verbi sacra parens
2 a Salve decus virginum
  b 2.p. Tu convallis humilis
3 a Tu thronus es Salomonis
  b 2.p. Salve mater pietatis
  c 3.p. Lux eclipsim nesciens
4 a Imperatrix gloriosa
  b 2.p. Florem ergo genuisti
  c 3.p. Res miranda

Section 4c was in fact entered in the index of Librone 1 as a separate composition, bringing the total number of motets to five; however, the rationale behind this list is not clear and most scholars consider no. 4c as the third part of motet 4.[6] Indeed, two elements confirm this assumption: on the one hand, Scribe B did not insert any bar line between sections 4b and 4c, thus indicating that one is the continuation of the other, in line with his habit in regard to the other two- and three-part motets composing this cycle.[7] On the other hand, Gaffurius himself intervened later, adding both custodes and a ‘verte folium’ rubric to connect nos. 4b and 4c, but did not insert his name at the beginning of no. 4c, in contrast to what he did at the beginning of the four motets (nos. 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a). In any case, the formal subdivision of the cycle makes no difference from the point of view of the performance, since according to the most recent research on the missales, the motets were meant to be sung one after the other.[8] The same applies to the assumption of Thomas L. Noblitt, who, while considering no. 4c as the third part of the last motet, divided the cycle into five motets, splitting the two parts of motet 1 in two distinct compositions, based on the double bar lines at the end of no. 1a, and the fact that it ends with an authentic cadence.[9]

No loco rubrics were inserted in the cycle, and it is not clear whether they are somehow implied, since the ten sections of Salve mater salvatoris do not fit the eight-part structure of the missales with specified rubrics.[10] In his own edition of the cycle, Luciano Migliavacca proposed a far-fetched solution, which resulted from an arbitrary adaptation: first, he considered no. 1a and 1b as a single section and not as two, thus obtaining a total number of nine parts instead of ten; then he suggested for the second part the rubric loco Kyrie, a label which is recorded nowhere in the other motetti missales.[11] In the current understanding of motetti missales, however, the position and role of the motets (or parts) within the cycle is virtually interchangeable; only the Elevation motet is clearly recognizable, both for its text and for is homorhythmic music, since it must be synchronized with the liturgical action.[12] In the cycle Salve mater salvatoris, the Elevation part corresponds to the second half of no. 3c, which, therefore, may be considered loco Sanctus.[13] However, Gaffurius’s cycle also differs from the other missales in this regard: the text of the Elevation section is an invocation to Christ, and does not refer at all to the sacrifice of his body on the cross nor specifically to the Eucharistic moment.[14] As stated above, Gaffurius composed his own missales cycle a few years after those of Weerbeke and Compère that were copied in the same Librone 1, and it is possible that, at that time, the customs were changing. The cycle Salve mater salvatoris might then be seen as a transition point between the other five cycles labelled missales and the number of shorter cycles with different configurations entered in the Libroni complex.[15]

As for all the other works by Gaffurius, with the only exception of a Magnificat also found (fragmentary) in a manuscript preserved in Paris,[16] all the motets of Salve mater salvatoris are unica and most likely they were composed expressly for the cathedral’s chapel. The Marian theme, which permeates the four Libroni and is linked to the particular devotion to the Virgin in the Milanese environment of that time, is also dominant in this cycle.[17] In contrast to the other missales cycles, however, the texts chosen for Salve mater salvatoris are not centones, but are almost entirely drawn from two well-known sequences dating back to the twelfth century: Adam of St- Victor’s Salve mater salvatoris (for the first three motets) and the anonymous Imperatrix gloriosa (for the last one).[18] Litany-like interpolations drawn from the Litaniae Lauretanae were added towards the end of the last motet and their original melody retained; their appearance in the motet is highlighted by the antiphonal rendering: two voices acclaim Mary and the other two answer with ‘ora pro nobis’. The two sequences chosen for this cycle are linked generically to Marian feasts, but Gaffurius might have intended it to be sung in particular on the occasion of the feast of the Nativity of Mary on 8 September, both because Adam’s sequence refers specifically to this feast and because the cathedral of Milan is consecrated ‘Mariae nascenti’.[19]

Gaffurius probably chose the texts himself; compared to the standard text of the two sequences given in Analecta hymnica, a few differences[20] in the forms of the verbs or in the choice of the words (e.g. ‘praesignans’ instead of ‘praesignant’ in no. 3a, or ‘assigna’ instead of ‘commenda’ in no. 3b) could be linked to different paths of transmission,[21] but, at least in certain cases, they could also have originated during copying. The only major differences are found in 2a, in which the two paired verses are switched, and in 3b and 3c, with the postponement in Gaffurius’s cycle of the verse ‘Lux eclipsim nesciens’, which in Analecta hymnica is placed immediately after the verse ‘Sol luna lucidior’, to which it is semantically linked.[22] The reason for this shift, apparently not attested elsewhere,[23] is not clear: in fact, not only do these two verses make more sense one after the other, but also the new arrangement has no impact on the musical setting of the cycle.[24] Concerning the switch between the two paired verses of 2a, however, it is probably a means of highlighting the verse ‘Salve decus virginum’, now in the first position at the beginning of the motet. This version makes a better parallelism with the beginning of no. 1a (‘Salve mater salvatoris’) and stresses the link with the motet Salve decus genitoris, which was entered in Librone 1 just before the Gaffurian cycle.[25]

At the present state of research, no cantus prius factus has been found. However, at the beginning of section 2a, Cantus and Tenor sing a melody which resembles that of a plainchant on Salve mater salvatoris (see Fig. 1),[26] which returns later in the cycle as a head-motif (no. 3a, mm. 1–2, C) and also in inversion (no. 1b, mm. 30–31, C).[27]

Fig. 1: Sequence melody Salve mater salvatoris (from Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales”’, 162).

As already noticed, the music of the litany part of no. 4c is clearly derived from the Litaniae Lauretanae, and in particular, as noticed by Noblitt, the shape of the melody corresponds to that used during Rogation days, although at a different pitch.[28]

Gaffurius inserted litany-like fragments in other compositions in the Libroni;[29] in this regard, it should be noted that the duo Cantus–Altus corresponding to the words ‘Sancta Maria’ in no. 4c, mm. 168–69, is identical to the same voices in Virgo dei digna, mm. 14–15 (and then repeated an octave lower by Tenor and Bassus, mm. 16–17); in addition, the entire music section corresponding to ‘Sancta Maria ora pro nobis’ (mm. 168–71) appears in Virgo dei digna with the text ‘Sancte Ambrosi ora pro nobis’ a few bars later (mm. 52–55).[30]

As with the head-motif already discussed, other recurring melodies show that the four Gaffurian motets were conceived as a cycle from the beginning.[31] In particular, the head-motif at the beginning of the Cantus of no. 1a (mm. 1–4: g'-a'-g'-f'-g'-a'-b'-a'), repeated, slightly modified, by the Tenor (mm. 2–5), comes back later in a shorter form (no. 1a, mm. 9–11, C and T; no. 1b, mm. 35–37, B; mm. 38–41, C; mm. 39–41, T; no. 2a, mm. 3–5, B). Another unifying procedure consists in softening the full texture using different combinations of two or three voices, or, vice versa, adding weight with homophonic blocks corresponding to significant words or expressions: ‘spina sumus cruentati’, ‘rosa patientiae’, ‘ebur candens’, ‘nec in caeli curia’, ‘sol luna lucidior’, ‘praeparans hospitium’, ‘ne terrores sive doli’, ‘et nos tuae claritatis’, ‘generosa’, ‘honorans ut domina’, ‘res miranda’, and the final ‘amen’.[32]

Regarding the position of Salve mater salvatoris within Librone 1, a few considerations can be added. This cycle is preceded by Gaffurius’s Salve decus genitoris, a celebratory motet in praise of Ludovico Sforza, who ruled as duke of Milan from 1494 to 1499, but had been regent on behalf of his nephew Gian Galeazzo since 1481.[33] Although this motet is independent of the missales cycle, as shown by its position in the index of Librone 1, it is surely linked to it somehow. Not only at first glance do the words ‘Salve decus genitoris’ recall immediately the textual incipit of motet no. 2a (‘Salve decus virginum’), but, more importantly, the two motets begin with a common motif of four notes (which correspond to the first head-motif cited),[34] each of which is heard twice in Salve decus genitoris, and the complete first phrases of their Cantus closely resemble each other (see Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Incipit a) Franchinus Gaffurius, Salve decus genitoris, Cantus (Librone 1, f. 82v, detail); b) Franchinus Gaffurius, Salve decus virginum, Cantus (Librone 1, f. 85v, detail).

Moreover, Salve decus genitoris contains a few passages very similar to those found in other motets of the cycle Salve mater salvatoris;[35] in particular, in the cadences on G, the suspension of the main note in the Cantus is combined with a recurrent formula in the Altus (dotted minim f' and the semiminims e'-d'-c', followed by a d').[36] Other aspects that recur both in this motet and in the cycle are progressions that use melodies with dotted rhythms. These similarities and cross-references suggest that Salve decus genitoris might have been sung together with the following missales cycle on particular feasts, possibly in the presence of Ludovico Sforza.[37]

The missales cycle is then followed by three Gaffurian motets, O beate Sebastiane, Omnipotens aeterne deus, and Virgo dei digna.[38] In his doctoral dissertation on Compère’s works, Ludwig Finscher considered the motets of Salve mater salvatoris and these three motets a single cycle,[39] but a few years later, in the introduction to the edition of Compère’s motetti missales, he changed his mind and assigned to the cycle Salve mater salvatoris the right pages, up to no. 4c (i.e. ff. 84v–93r).[40] In fact, the hypothesis of a single cycle including three more motets is untenable, since these three compositions differ from the Gaffurian missales (and also among them) in their tonal type; moreover, any textual link with them is missing and no. 4c ends with the word ‘Amen’, to underline the cycle’s completion.[41] However, if the insertion in Librone 1 of Omnipotens aeterne deus is belated and responds to the logic of filling the last page of a gathering and the first of the new one, once the volume was bound,[42] the two Gaffurian motets O beate Sebastiane and Virgo dei digna were probably placed there on purpose, since they share their litany-like style with no. 4c. Moreover, it might be accidental, but the first four notes of the Cantus – in long values – of no. 4c correspond exactly to the plainchant incipit of O beate Sebastiane sung by the Tenor at f. 93v, and, as already noted, the invocations of Virgo dei digna recall those contained in no. 4c. It seems, then, that the litany-like section no. 4c and the two litany motets were gathered here on purpose, probably because they could have been used on the same occasions. If this were the case, then, as I have suggested above regarding Salve decus genitoris, the cycle Salve mater salvatoris was probably open to different adjustments according to the situation. Seen in this way, it is possible that no. 4c was listed separately in the index not because it was necessarily considered as an independent motet within the cycle (something that the paratext seems to deny), but because, under certain circumstances, it could have been performed independently from the cycle, in combination with the two following litany motets.

The entire cycle was copied by Scribe B straddling gatherings 11 and 12. Later Gaffurius added his name at the top of the first folio of each motet and custodes and a ‘verte folium’ rubric at the end of no. 4b. The copying work is quite accurate; a few errors were emended at a later stage, although some still remain.[43] It is not clear if the emendations in the music are due to Scribe B himself or to Gaffurius, since the typology of corrections does not permit us to recognize a particular hand. It is, however, certain that Gaffurius revised the cycle at a certain point, as a few interventions by his hand in the text show:

  • 85v: ‘cela’ added in the Tenor;
  • 92r: ‘nubes’ added in the Altus at f. 92r, after deleting ‘con-’ and rewriting it at the beginning of the following staff;
  • 92v: ‘va’ added in small characters above the wrong ‘gramur’ in the Cantus;
  • 92v–93r: mensuration signs added at the beginning of no. 4c, where no place had been left for them;
  • 93r: ‘ergo’ added in a small font between ‘nobis’ and ‘clemens’ in the Bassus.

Gaffurius’s revision of the text, however, was not entirely accurate, given that a few errors remain, among which the glaring ‘ordinaris ris’ in the Cantus (f. 88v) and ‘supplantent tent’ in the Bassus (f. 89r).[44]

The cycle Salve mater salvatoris has already been edited by Luciano Migliavacca in the series Archivium Musices Metropolitanum Mediolanense;[45] however, that edition was not properly ‘critical’, because the apparatus is lacking[46] and neither errors nor different layers of interventions are recorded. Moreover, a few errors were inserted in the music:

  • 1b, m. 61, B: semibreve d wrongly transcribed as e;
  • 2b, m. 64, A: semibreve d' wrongly transcribed as c';
  • 2b, m. 74, A: minim d' wrongly transcribed as c'.

Regarding the text, major mistakes occurred in the text underlay (‘O convallis humilis’ instead of ‘Tu convallis humilis’, ‘Vox eclipsim nesciens’ instead of ‘Lux eclipsim nesciens’), which change its meaning compared to that given in the manuscript.

A more reliable edition – although with the apparatus reduced to the minimum – is contained in the appendix of Sergio Lonoce’s dissertation.[47]

Basel, September 2020


[1] For a complete overview of the motetti missales and a comprehensive bibliography, see Daniele V. Filippi, ‘Breve guida ai motetti missales (e dintorni)’, in Codici per cantare: I Libroni del Duomo nella Milano sforzesca, ed. Daniele V. Filippi and Agnese Pavanello, Studi e saggi, 27 (Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana, 2019), 139–69; see also the MCE General introduction on GCO (Gaffurius Codices Online, Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, accessed 11 Aug. 2020, https://www.gaffurius-codices.ch/).

[2] Concerning the numbering of the scribes who worked in the Libroni and the extent of their work, see Martina Pantarotto, ‘“Scripsi et notavi”: Scribes, Notators, and Calligraphers in the Workshop of the Gaffurius Codices’, in Reopening Gaffurius’s Libroni, ed. Agnese Pavanello (Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana (LIM), forthcoming), and GCO-Inventory.

[3] The date 23 June 1490 appears in the ownership not of the volume; still, a few compositions, especially those copied on the blank folios of two consecutive gatherings, were surely added later. See Daniele V. Filippi, ‘The Making and the Dating of the Gaffurius Codices: Archival Evidence and Research Perspectives’, in Reopening Gaffurius’s Libroni, ed. Agnese Pavanello (Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana (LIM), forthcoming); Pantarotto, ‘“Scripsi et notavi”’.

[4] See Sergio Lonoce, ‘Gaffurio perfectus musicus: Lettura dei “motetti missales”’ (tesi di laurea, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2009), 59.

[5] It should be noticed, however, that Compère’s cycle Ave virgo gloriosa caeli iubar is complete only in Librone 3 (ff. 125v–135r [III.19]–[III.26]), while Librone 1 contains only three motets out of eight (ff. 143v–149r [I.106]–[I.108]). For two possible explanations, see the Introduction to MCE 3 and Cristina Cassia, ‘Gaffurius at the Mirror: The Internal Concordances of the Libroni’, in Reopening Gaffurius’s Libroni, ed. Agnese Pavanello (Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana (LIM), forthcoming).

[6] However, Gerhard Croll, ‘Das Motettenwerk Gaspars van Weerbeke’ (Ph.D. diss., Georg-August Universität, 1954), 180, following the index, divides the cycle into five motets.

[7] The only exception is motet 1, where bar lines were required because its two parts, nos. 1a and 1b, had been copied on the same opening (and, in the case of Cantus and Bassus, the second part even starts on the same staff which contains the end of the first one).

[8] See Daniele V. Filippi, ‘“Audire missam non est verba missae intelligere...”: The Low Mass and the Motetti Missales in Sforza Milan’, Journal of the Alamire Foundation, 9, no. 1 (2017), 11–32, at 21–29, and Filippi, ‘Breve guida ai motetti missales’, 139–69, at 151–57.

[9] Thomas L. Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales” of the Late Fifteenth Century’ (Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, 1963), 5–6.

[10] Among the other five missales cycles contained in the Libroni, only Compère’s Hodie nobis de virgine and [Missa] Galeazescha and the anonymous Ave domine Iesu Christe (probably also composed by him; see the Introduction to MCE 2) feature explicit loco rubrics. Concerning the meaning of loco rubrics, see Filippi, ‘“Audire missam”’, 23–24, and Filippi, ‘Breve guida ai motetti missales’, 148–51.

[11] According to Luciano Migliavacca, in Franchino Gaffurio, Mottetti, ed. Luciano Migliavacca, Archivium Musices Metropolitanum Mediolanense, 5 (Milan: Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano, 1959), p. iv, the motets could have been organized as follows: ‘Loco Introitus: Salve mater salvatoris. Loco Kyrie: Salve decus virginum. Loco Gloria: O [sic] convallis humilis. Loco Patrem: Tu thronus es. Loco Offertorii: Salve mater pietatis. Loco Sanctus: Vox [sic] eclipsis [sic] nescia [sic]. Loco post elevationem: Imperatrix gloriosa. Loco Agnus: Florem ergo genuisti. Loco Deo gratias: Res miranda.’ Firmly rejecting this hypothesis, Thomas L. Noblitt, ‘The Ambrosian “Motetti Missales” Repertory’, Musica Disciplina, 22 (1968), 77–103, at 81, n. 20, underlined that no motetti missales cycle contains nine motets or a ‘loco Kyrie’, and disapproved of Migliavacca’s lack of interest in tonal relationships and ‘verte folium’ indications, which clearly show which sections belong together.

[12] See Filippi, ‘“Audire missam”’, 23–24.

[13] See Lonoce, ‘Gaffurio perfectus musicus’, 67. According to Noblitt, ‘The Ambrosian “Motetti Missales” Repertory’, 81, n. 20, this label may be applied to the entire motet no. 3. Concerning Elevation settings in the Libroni, see Agnese Pavanello, ‘The Elevation as Liturgical Climax in Gesture and Sound: Milanese Elevation Motets in Context’, Journal of the Alamire Foundation, 9, no. 1 (2017), 33–59, at 41–44.

[14] An invocation to Christ at the Elevation also appears in the missales cycle Gaude flore virginali transmitted in Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Mus. MS 3154 (Leopold Codex), in the middle of the ‘loco Sanctus’ motet Gaude mater miserorum, ff. 41v–42r (‘Domine Iesu propitius esto mihi peccatori’).

[15] See the Motet Cycles Database (MCD), Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, accessed 20 Aug. 2020, http://www.motetcycles.ch/.

[16] Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des Manuscrits, Rés. 862, f. 88v, contains Cantus and Tenor of the verses 2 and 4 of the Magnificat octavi toni, also found in Librone 1, ff. 37v–39r [I.25]. See Nanie Bridgman, ‘Manuscrits clandestins : A propos du Ms. Rés. 862 de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris, fonds du Conservatoire’, Revue de musicologie, 53, no. 1 (1967), 21–27.

[17] For a comprehensive survey of Marian devotion in Milan, see Nolan Ira Gasser, ‘The Marian Motet Cycles of the Gaffurius Codices: A Musical and Liturgico-Devotional Study’ (Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 2001), 155–226.

[18] Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales”’, 155; for the origin and the dissemination of these sequences, see pp. 156–57. Concerning the sequence Salve mater salvatoris, Gaffurius composed a second motet, Salve mater salvatoris (2.p. Inter natos mulierum), ff. 179v–181r [I.137], which begins with the same first verse, but continues with a series of invocations to different saints; a few excerpts of the sequence are also found in Loyset Compère, Salve mater salvatoris, Librone 3, ff. 132v–133r [III.25] (see also MCD T077). The two sequences Salve mater salvatoris and Imperatrix gloriosa are also combined together in an anonymous cycle (probably composed likewise by Gaffurius) entered towards the end of Librone 3, which consists of three motets: Caeli quondam roraverunt (ff. 205v–206r [III.62]), Imperatrix gloriosa (ff. 206v–207r [III.63]), and Salve verbi sacra parens (ff. 207v–208r [III.64]). These three motets, in a different order (ff. 13v–14r [IV.5], ff. 12v–13r [IV.4], and ff. 23v–24r [IV.7] respectively) and with the addition of a mass, form a slightly different cycle in Librone [4]. See MCD C24 Caeli quondam roraverunt and MCD C25 Imperatrix gloriosa + Missa.

[19] See Lonoce, ‘Gaffurio perfectus musicus’, 42.

[20] By ‘differences’ I refer here to alternative readings which may be meaningful, and not to simple mistakes in the spelling that have to be corrected.

[21] Both variants are also found in other manuscripts of different origin; see AH 54, no. 245, p. 386.

[22] See AH 54, no. 245, p. 384, st. 17–18; the ‘light that does not know eclipse’ is better related to the brightness of moon, sun, and stars cited in that verse.

[23] None of the sixty-six manuscripts listed in AH 54, no. 245, p. 384, contains this arrangement of the verses.

[24] According to Lonoce, ‘Gaffurio perfectus musicus’, 63, ‘Gaffurio adottò questo espediente per arrivare con le parole “Jesu, verbum summi Patris” (c. 89v) precisamente al momento dell’Elevazione’. However, this assumption is not correct, since the section starting with the words ‘Iesu verbum summi patris’ (in section 3c, mm. 189–95) comes much later in the cycle and is not affected by the postponement of the verse starting with the words ‘Lux eclipsim nesciens’. Another explanation for this postponement was proposed by Eva Ferro, ‘“Old Texts for New Music”? Textual and Philological Observations on the Cycles “Salve Mater Salvatoris” and “Ave Domine Iesu Christe” from Librone 1’, in Motet Cycles between Devotion and Liturgy, ed. Daniele V. Filippi and Agnese Pavanello, Schola Cantorum Basiliensis Scripta, 7 (Basel: Schwabe, 2019), 189–218, at 197–99, who argued that the terms ‘lux’ and ‘ardor’ contained in this verse ‘refer metaphorically to Christ as he is present in the consecrated host’ and are thus linked to the following verses, the complete section no. 3c then being considered ‘an ad Elevationem piece’. Nevertheless, in this context ‘lux’ refers beyond doubt to Mary and not to Christ, since the subject of the first half of the verse is Mary’s virginity, which is the light that does not know eclipse (‘Lux eclipsim nesciens / Virginis est castitas’); thus, in my opinion, the displacement of this verse cannot be explained in these terms. Moreover, the expression ‘lux eclipsim nesciens’ seems to be particularly linked to Mary, since it is also found in another Marian text contained in the Montpellier Codex. See Hans Tischler, ed., The Montpellier Codex. Part IV, Texts and Translations, Recent Researches in the Music of the Middle Ages and Early Renaissance, 8 (Madison: A-R Editions, 1985), 102, no. 302, vv. 6–9 (‘O stella, sola pariens, aurora gratissima, o lux eclipsim nesciens, vallis fecondis[s]ima’).

[25] Concerning this motet, see further below.

[26] Carl-Allan Moberg, Über die schwedischen Sequenzen: Eine musikgeschichtliche Studie. Mit 5 Tafeln und 69 Sequenzenweisen nebst melodischen Varianten aus schwedischen und anderen Quellen, Veröffentlichungen der Gregorianischen Akademie zu Freiburg/Schweiz (Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1927), 11a; see Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales”’, 162.

[27] See also no. 3c, mm. 164–65, B, and 167–69, T and B; no. 4c, mm. 146–47, C and 150–52, T and C. The same four-note motif is also found at the beginning of Gaffurius’s homonymous motet Salve mater salvatoris (2.p. Inter natos mulierum) [I.137], first in the Bassus, then in the Tenor, and finally in the Cantus.

[28] See Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales”’, 163, and Litaniae Lauretanae, in Liber usualis officii pro dominicis et festis I. vel II. classis (Rome and Tournai: Desclée & Socii, 1913), 33*. For the moment, however, I have not found this melody in contemporaneous liturgical books.

[29] See the following compositions by Gaffurius in Librone 1: O beate Sebastiane (ff. 93v–95r [I.61]), Virgo dei digna (ff. 96v–97r [I.63]), Salve mater salvatoris (2.p. Inter natos) ([I.137]), and the anonymous (but ascribed to Gaffurius in Annali della Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano dall’origine fino al presente: Appendici, vol. 2 (Milan: G. Brigola, 1885), 168) Solemnitas laudabilis, in Librone [4], ff. 82v–83r [IV.42]. In the index of Librone 1, both Virgo dei digna and Salve mater salvatoris (2.p. Inter natos) are flanked by the word ‘letanie’.

[30] See Librone 1, ff. 96v–97r [I.63]. The bar numbers correspond to the edition of the piece in Gaffurio, Mottetti, 114–16.

[31] Ludwig Finscher, ‘Die Messen und Motetten Loyset Compères’ (Ph.D. diss., Georg-August Universität, 1954), 295–96, on the contrary, stated that the motets do not seem to be linked to each other, and he doubted whether they were conceived as a cycle from the beginning, suggesting that the cycle is the result of independent motets put together.

[32] These passages are found respectively in sections no. 1b, mm. 56–58; no. 2a, mm. 19–21; no. 3a, mm. 18–19, 45–46, and 58–60; no. 3b, mm. 96–98 and 129–30; no. 3c, mm. 210–12; no. 4a, mm. 16–17; no. 4b, mm. 122–23; no. 4c, mm. 142–45 and 212–16; to these passages must be added the Elevation sections in breves in no. 3c, mm. 189–96 and 202–5.

[33] For more information regarding this motet, see Francesco Degrada, ‘Musica e musicisti nell’età di Ludovico il Moro’, in Milano nell’età di Ludovico il Moro: Atti del convegno internazionale, 28 febbraio - 4 marzo 1983, 2 vols. (Milan: Comune di Milano, Archivio storico civico e Biblioteca trivulziana, 1983), vol. 2, 409–16.

[34] The inversion of this motif is found in the second part of the motet, Qui nepotes plus quam natos, mm. 45–46, C.

[35] Compare Salve decus genitoris, mm. 11–12 with no. 4c, mm. 193–94, and Qui nepotes, mm. 25–28 with no. 3c, mm. 189–92.

[36]Salve decus genitoris, mm. 65-66; 2.p. mm. 22–23, 63–64 (see Gaffurio, Mottetti, 69–74); no. 1a, mm. 13–14, 41–42; no. 2a, mm. 5–6, 50–51; no. 3a, mm. 20–21, 68–70; no. 3b, mm. 135–36; no. 4a, mm. 12–13; no. 4b, mm. 139–40.

[37] The text of the motet does not contain any reference to a specific occasion; according to Degrada, ‘Musica e musicisti nell’età di Ludovico il Moro’, 410, n. 3bis, it might have been sung for the marriage between Bianca Maria and Maximilian I on 30 November 1493. However, Librone 1 was bound in 1490 and Salve decus genitoris is not a later addition; therefore it cannot have been composed for that occasion.

[38] See [I.61], ff. 95v–96r [I.62], and [I.63].

[39] Finscher, ‘Die Messen’, 295–96.

[40] Loyset Compère, Opera Omnia, ed. Ludwig Finscher, vol. 2, Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae, 15 ([s.l.]: American Institute of Musicology, 1959). See Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales”’, 154, n. 7.

[41] Noblitt, ‘The “Motetti Missales”’, 154–55.

[42] See other examples in Pantarotto, ‘“Scripsi et notavi”’.

[43] According to Davide Daolmi, ‘L’invenzione del sangue: La polifonia e il ducato sforzesco’, in Leonardo da Vinci: Il musico, ed. Pietro C. Marani (Cinisello Balsamo: Silvana, 2010), 61–71, at 71, n. 42, the pattern wrongly written twice in section 1a, mm. 2–3, A, and not corrected raises doubts concerning the practical use of the Libroni; however, although many errors are scattered in the Libroni complex, the practice of improvisation surely enabled the singers to find extempore solutions. See Cassia, ‘Gaffurius at the Mirror’.

[44] A similar error can be found on f. 87r (‘pleni plenitudinem’ in the Bassus); however, in this case, a thin stroke through the second ‘pleni’ probably indicates that it was deleted afterwards.

[45] See Gaffurio, Mottetti.

[46] The only entry for the entire cycle concerns the litany-like style of no. 4c; see Gaffurio, Mottetti, p. ix.

[47] Lonoce, ‘Gaffurio perfectus musicus’, 79 (apparatus) and pp. i–xxi (transcription).

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